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10 Preguntas sobre el R32

10 Preguntas sobre el R32
  1. ¿Qué es la normativa F-GAS y qué objetivo tiene?
  2. ¿Qué es el R32 y por qué aparece en el sector del aire acondicionado?
  3. ¿No estaba prohibida la instalación de gas R32 en España?
  4. ¿Qué dice la normativa?
  5. ¿Es un gas seguro?
  6. ¿Cuáles son los beneficios del R32 respecto al R410?
  7. ¿Qué tipo de instaladores pueden manipular e instalar equipos de R32?
  8. ¿Son necesarias nuevas herramientas para instalar R32?
  9. Dudas sobre abocardar las tuberías de R32
  10. Productos en Mercafrioycalor con R32

1.- ¿Qué es la normativa F-GAS y qué objetivo tiene?

   El Reglamento Europeo F-Gas 517/2014, conocido como "Norma F-Gas" fue publicado en abril de 2014 y operativo desde el 1 de Enero de 2015.

   Dicho reglamento presenta un conjunto de normas para reducir progresivamente las emisiones de gases fluorados de efecto invernadero (Gases F) con el objetivo de limitar el daño a la atmósfera reduciendo el uso de refrigerantes con un elevado nivel de PCA (Potencial de Calentamiento Atmosférico).

Por este motivo, la F-Gas ha propiciado la aparición de equipos con refrigerante R32, un refrigerante más eficiente y con menor nivel de PCA que el R410A.

2.- ¿Qué es el R32 y por qué aparece en el sector del aire acondicionado?

   El gas R-32 (difluorometano), no es un refrigerante nuevo. De hecho, el R410A está compuesto de un 50% de R32 por lo que lleva utilizándose en equipos de climatización desde hace muchos años aunque su utilización en estado puro (sin mezclas) no se había implementado hasta ahora.

   La aparición del refrigerante R32 en el sector del aire acondicionado es impulsado por el conjunto de normas de la F-Gas y la eliminación gradual de los refrigerantes con alto PCA. Para adaptarse a dicha norma los principales fabricantes de aire acondicionado han determinado que el R32 es la opción óptima para su uso en sus productos de aplicación residencial y comercial.

   De hecho, muchos fabricantes japoneses ya han estado usando R32 en sus productos desde 2013.

   El R32 es el gás más ecológico jamás empleado en climatización residencial y comercial.

3.- ¿No estaba prohibida la instalación de gas R32 en España?

   Hasta el 8 de Diciembre de 2018, la normativa española de seguridad, regulada por el Reglamento de Seguridad de Instalaciones Frigoríficas (Real Decreto 138/2011) decía que el gas R32, debido a que es un gas ligeramente inflamable, tenía una clasificación de seguridad media (L2).

   Esto suponía que la instalación de equipos con R32 requería de una serie de recursos técnicos y económicos para los instaladores y los usuarios finales.

PARA EL INSTALADORPARA EL PROPIETARIO DE LA INSTALACIÓN

   -Cumplir con los límites de concentración en

    función de cada aplicación según el RD 138/2011.

   -No se puede abocardar en el interior de la vivienda.

   -Debe ser un instalador de nivel 2 y disponer de un

    técnico titulado.

   -Debe disponer de un Seguro de Responsabilidad

    Civil de 900.000 €

   -Proyecto de la instalación y certificado Técnico de

    Obra (incluso para instalar un split de pared en

    un dormitorio).

   -Propietario con Seguro de Responsabilidad Civil 

    de 500.000 €

   -Contrato de mantenimiento suscrito con una 

    instaladora de nivel 2.

   En definitiva, instalar equipos de R32 no estaba prohibido pero cumplir todos los requisitos que marcaba la normativa lo hacía muy costoso y prácticamente inviable.

4.- ¿Qué dice la normativa?

   Desde el pasado 8 de Diciembre de 2018, se ha aprobado mediante el Real Decreto-ley 20/2018, la disposición transitoria para la regulación del uso de gases del grupo A2L, como el R32. Vía este real decreto, se eliminan la mayoría de los trámites y requisitos que se recogían en el actual reglamento R.D. 138/2011, aplicándose lo siguiente:

Equipos no compactos con carga < 1,84 kgEquipos no compactos con carga entre 1,84kg y 12kg

   La instaladora deberá entregar al cliente los siguientes documentos:

   -Certificado con los datos de la empresa instaladora.

   -Fabricante, modelo, año, número de fabricación.

   -Carga de gas y grupo del gas refrigerante.

   -Manual de instrucciones

   La empresa instaladora puede ser de NIVEL 1 o RITE.

   El titular deberá presentar a la Comunidad Autónoma la siguiente documentación:

    -Memoria técnica de la instalación. (incluyendo cálculo de carga máxima admisible)

    -Certificado de la empresa frigorista y de la instalación.

    -Certificado de instalación eléctrica.

    -Declaración de conformidad de los equipos a presión y

     de sistema de tuberías.

    -Declaración de conformidad CE de la instalación. 

    -Contrato de mantenimiento con empresa instaladora frigorista.

La empresa instaladora puede ser de NIVEL 1 o RITE salvo que la instalación supere el límite de carga máxima admisible o los 12 kg de gas.

En ese caso deberá ser de NIVEL 2 y añadir el análisis de riesto de la instalación.

5.- ¿El R32 es un gas seguro?

   Totalmente, el gas R32 se puede utilizar de forma totalmente segura en aplicaciones de aire acondicionado.

   El R32 se categoriza dentro de los gases A2L de baja inflamabilidad, pero es extremadamente difícil que prenda. Las chispas que generan los relés o interruptores de los aparatos domésticos, así como la electricidad estática común, no tienen suficiente energía como para prender el R32.

   Es más, la inflamación solo se produce a altísimas temperaturas. Puedes poner un mechero delante de un escape de gas R32 y no arde, está comprobado.

   El gas R32 solo ardería cuando la concentración de gas en un espacio sea superior a 0,307 kg/m3.

6.- ¿Cuáles son los beneficios del R32 respecto al R410?

   MÁS EFICIENTE

   Mayor eficiencia energética que el R410A. Necesita menos energía para producir la misma temperatura.

   MÁS ECOLÓGICO

   Ambos gases tienen un impacto 0 en la capa de ozono, pero el R32 tiene hasta un 70% menor impacto en el calentamiento global (PCA=675) con respecto al R410A (PCA=2088), lo que supone un menor riesgo de daños en el medio ambiente en caso de fugas involuntarias.

   MÁS FÁCIL DE MANIPULAR

   El R32 es 100% puro (sin mezclas) lo que hace más simple su reciclado y reutilización. Puede cargarse en estado gaseoso y líquido.

   MENOR CARGA DE REFRIGERANTE

   Requiere de hasta un 40% menos de refrigerante que el R410A ya que tiene mayor transmisión térmica y eficiencia.

7.- ¿Qué tipo de instaladores pueden manipular e instalar equipos de R32?

   Según RD 20/2018, la ejecución, mantenimiento, reparación, modificación y desmantelamiento de instalaciones con R32 puede ser realizada por empresas frigoristas de NIVEL 1 o RITE.

   Sólo cuando la instalación supere los 12kg de gas o el límite de carga máxima admisible*, la instalación deberá ser realizada por un instalador de NIVEL 2.

Empresas de NINVEL 1 O RITEEmpresas de NIVEL 2

   -Pueden montar o mantener equipos de menos de 30kw de consumo en compresor, siendo la suma de los mismos menor de 100kw.

   -El seguro de responsabilidad civil debe ser de 300.000 €.

   -Necesita un técnico en plantilla (profesional habilitado frigorista).

    

   -Sin límite de potencia total.

   -El seguro de responsabilidad civil debe ser de 900.000 €. 

   -Necesita un ingeniero en plantilla.

* El cálculo de carga máxima admisible deberá incluirse dentro de la memoria técnica que se requiere siempre pare equipos de R32 instalados con carga de hasta 12 kg.

8.- ¿Son necesarias nuevas herramientas para instalar R32?

   Instalar un equipo de aire acondicionado con R32 es igual de fácil que uno de R410. Las herramientas necesarias son prácticamente las mismas.

   Sólo se deberá comprobar que el manómetro y la bomba de vacío son compatibles con R32.

Bomba de vacío de doble efecto en base a la DIN8975.

La mayoría de instaladores dispone de ella.

La presión del R32 es un poco más elevada que la

del R410. Se debe comprobar que la aguja del

manómetro puede indicar la presión correcta y

necesaria o sino aplicar un cambio de escala.

9.- Dudas sobre abocardar las tuberías de R32

   El uso de uniones abocardadas está permitido por normativa siempre para uniones de tuberías con diámetro inferior a 19mm (3/4"). 

  La realidad es que el único cambio aplicado respecto a la normativa anterior es que se incluye el permiso de abocardar la unidad interior dentro de un espacio ocupado.

10 .- Productos en Mercafrioycalor con R32

Maquina aire Inverter Vaillant 2500 VAI 6-025 WN Gas R32Maquina aire Inverter Vaillant 3500 VAI 6-035 WN Gas R32Maquina aire Inverter Vaillant 5000 VAI 6-050 WN Gas R32Maquina aire Inverter Vaillant 6000 VAI 6-065 WN Gas R32
Maquina aire acondicionado Inverter Lomo+ 9 Gree R32Maquina Aire Acondicionado Inverter Lomo+ 12 Gree R32Maquina Aire Acondicionado Inverter Lomo+ 18 Gree R32

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